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Tungsten is a Swedish word which means heavy stone. Its chemical symbol is W, as it is also known as Wolfram, lapis ponderosus. The name Wolfram was given by a medieval German smelters. He found that tin ores had lower yield due to the presence of tungsten metal in them. It was found that tungsten was responsible for the consumption of tin similar to a Wolf and hence the name “Wolfram”. In 1783, the two Spanish chemist de Ehujar brothers isolated tungsten in its purest form. Tungsten is a greyish-white, lustrous metal. It is solid at room temperature, however, at temperatures 1650°C or above it shows highest tensile strength. It has excellent corrosion resistance and most importantly used for making alloys. Alloys made by Mixing Tungsten with Magnesium and Calcium glows and produces phosphorescent which is used for making light bulbs. Most of these unusual properties are due to the half-filled 5d electron shell. Based on these properties, tungsten and its alloys have many important applications. Tungsten is found in several ore forms.
Its two main commercially mined ores are wolframite and scheelite. Wolframite is the most abundant resource of tungsten, as it accounts 70% of the total tungsten world. Wolframite: It is the chief ore of the metal tungsten. Wolframite is a reddish-brown to grayish-black lustrous mineral. It is a strong and quite dense material. Wolframite mainly occurs in quartz veins and pegmatites rock. Separation method includes gravity separation (spirals, cones, tables), in combination with magnetic separation. Due to its high melting temperature, it is an ideal material for electric filaments machining tungsten tools as well as armor-piercing ammunition. Notable occurrences: Nanling Range, China; Colorado, USA; Russia; Bolivia; Korea; England; Portugal; Myanmar and Australia. Scheelite: It is a calcium tungstate mineral. Scheelite is a subordinate ore of tungsten. Czochralski process is used for the synthesis of Scheelite. At times it is used to imitate diamond, as a scintillator. Its ore have a color that range from golden yellow, brownish green to dark brown. Its gravity is high and its hardness is low. Notable occurrences: Hollinger Mine, Ontario, Canada; Saxony, Germany; Australia; California, Arizona, Utah and Colorado, in the USA; South Korea; England; and China.
ManufacturingWhen the properties of soil beneath an existing structure change, it has an adverse effect on the entire structure. Such soil changes are typically attributed to environmental factors, such as extended periods of dry or wet weather. ManufacturingPrior to the commencement of construction, a site is required by law to undergo an extensive soil test to identify if it has the strength to bear the intended weight of the structure. This is conducted by an external firm and the findings are put into an official record. ManufacturingModern hearing aids have come a long way from the days of basic analog hearing aids which were bulky, uncomfortable and had a lot of background noise. ManufacturingThere are many individual elements that comprise the greater spectrum of so-called ‘aggregate’ materials, all of which play a vital role in contemporary construction. Commonly used elements include gravel, sand, and slag, among others. Steel or Aluminium - Which Is Right for You? ManufacturingWithin the industrial sector, items can be forged from a number of different materials. Each company will have a good explanation for favouring one material over the other, just as each client will have their own reason for having a material preference, as well. ManufacturingSafety is, or at least should be the highest priority for any industrial facility, but more especially if it’s a chemical manufacturing plant. ManufacturingThe history of steel in construction dates back many years. Before steel, builders used cast iron for constructing structures.
Known as the 'Edmonton Protocol,' because it was developed at the University of Alberta, the procedure offered hope for insulin-dependent diabetics, known as Type 1 diabetics. For the procedure, doctors collected about one million islet cells from two or more donor pancreas, purified them and injected them into the liver of the diabetic. Surgery amounts to a tube inserted into the hepatic portal vein where the islet cells are dripped into the liver. Seven Type 1 diabetics were transplanted with islet cells using this pioneering technique, which created excitement in this field. But a new study, recently reported in the New England Journal of Medicine, showed transplants of insulin-making cells, using the Edmonton Protocol, failed to free Type 1 diabetics from insulin shots. After two years, only five of 36 patients - less than one in seven - remained insulin independent. While the procedure improved a patient's blood sugar control, the transplants failed for ten of the 36 patients within a year of receiving islet cells from the pancreas of organ donors.