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Careful measurements of phase velocities in the Canadian shield have been made in the period range 3 to 90 sec for Rayleigh waves and 12 to 60 sec for Love waves by phase correlation of wave trains. The continental Love wave phase velocity data are the first to be reported in the literature. The phase and group velocities are higher than yet found in any other continental area, indicating relatively higher shear velocities in the crust and upper mantle. For paths in the Canadian shield a prominent Lg arrival with a velocity of about 3.65 km/sec is observed and an Sn arrival is recorded clearly to distances of about 4000 km with a velocity of about 4.72 km/sec. A theoretical layered model of the crust and upper mantle consistent with the various types of data has been derived by an inversion method employing least-squares curve-fitting of phase velocity data. This model has a three-layered crust 35.2 km thick with shear velocity increasing to about 3.85 km/sec in the lower crust. The upper mantle has a high speed layer with shear velocity 4.72 km/sec down to about 115 km below which the low velocity channel has a shear velocity of about 4.5 km/sec down to a depth of about 315 km. At greater depths the shear velocity closely follows the Gutenberg model. Higher mode phase velocity dispersion curves computed from the theoretical model are used for computing theoretical seismograms for the Canadian shield. These theoretical seismograms possess many of the features of the observed Lg arrivals, showing that Lg can be explained by normal mode wave propagation in a simple, layered crust.
If you're doing it to save rainwater than you would need a barrel to collect in. If you go on YouTube you will see many ideas. If you don't want to make one you can buy them. 100.00.Rain chains will enhance the look of your yard or deck. Dolores Monet tells about her pretty little pond and how to make it in her hub. A pond is another nice addition to a yard even if it is just a tiny one. We had a pretty large one at our other house. The people who bought the house tore it out. I'm heading into town today to see if I can find a water lily for my little barrel. We have had our rain chain up since Aug of 2011 and it's still there and no problems with it. Another idea for a garden is a bottle tree check out my bottle tree. Sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account. 0 of 8192 characters usedPost CommentNo HTML is allowed in comments, but URLs will be hyperlinked. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites. That looks really pretty.
Deborah-Diane, Thank you. We like it. Thanks for stopping by and for the vote. Your rain chain is fascinating, and looks amazing. What a great idea! Peggy W, Thank you somehow I missed your comment on here. Thanks for the vote and share. My husband is very handy and I'm very lucky I don't have to call anyone to work around the house. He has taught our boys to be the same way. Thanks for coming by, at the end of my chain is a big flower pot I keep fish in. I think I bought it at Wal-mart. You can put just about anything under the chain. The chain does guide water into the a bucket or whatever you put under it. Very cool. I love copper. Does the chain guide the rain to the bucket? What is at the end of the chain and why? I really like craft, looks very useful if it does what I think.
I had never heard of rain chains. Thanks for introducing me to this subject that is not only pretty but eco friendly as well. Your husband is one handy man! You are a lucky lady! UUI votes and will share. Thank you and thanks for stopping by. I appreciate the vote. 6 years ago from From Mumbai, presently in Jalandhar,INDIA. That's a wonderful job your husband has done. I didn't have an idea of what a rain chain was. It sure looks pretty as well. Voted up and interesting. Au fait, Thank you I'm hoping to get a picture of it with ice and snow on it tonight. We're getting snow right now. Thanks for the vote. I had never heard of rain chains before. Excellent idea and great hub. Voted up and beautiful! Your welcome. Thank you, for stopping by my hub. Moonlake: This is a great post. I love rain chains but know they are expensive to buy.